Sunday, May 22, 2016

#modernsongs

सयौ पटक कोशीस गरे,
फुस्किएको फेद पत्ता लगाउनलाई,
उध्रिरह्यो, फुस्किरह्यो,
धौ धौ भयो, टुप्पो समाउनालाई ।
++++
कसिलो थियो, मायालु थियो,
बुनेको आँफैले, उनेको आँफैलाई ,
भयो कसरी, शत्रुका आँखा लागे कसरी,
सकस भयो, चिरेको यो मन सीउनलाई ।    

Friday, May 20, 2016

#Technicaleducation and #vocationaltraining in Nepal


Rapid Scan of Current Status of Technical Education and Vocational Training  in Nepal





German-Nepal Friendship Association, Cologne
January,2011






Prepared by
Radha Paudel
Chairperson
Action Works Nepal (AWON), Kathmandu, Nepal



Executive Summary
This small scale study on Rapid Scan of Current Status of Technical Education and Vocational Training (TEVT) in Nepal has carried out by Action Works Nepal (AWON) for German-Nepal Friendship Association (GNFA) in October 2010-January 2011. The main purpose of the study is to survey the status of the technical education and vocational training in Nepal as a alternative to traditional college and universities. The desk review, participatory interview, discussion meetings, field visits with right holders, experts and representatives of civil societies were followed during process.
S.N.
Institutions
Annual Target 2067 (2010)
1
Ministry of Labor and Transportation
20, 800
2
CTEVT-Skills Employment Project (SEP)
8, 437
3
FNCCI (2003/10)
4,100
4
CTEVT -Long term
12, 000
Total

35, 337
In Nepal, the TEVT, is crucial and fundamental component for poverty alleviation through raising income of people with or without school education. It has more significant role in peace building process as well as sustainable development of the country. Thus, Nepal government has taken TEVT very seriously in tenth five year plan (2002/07) by targeting women, dalit[1] and other excluded groups/comunities by socially, politically, economically, geographically. As guided by this policy, five types of organizations are providing trainings across Nepal. They are; i) Center for technical Education and Vocational Training (CTEVT), ii) various private institutions, iii) government agencies, iv) technical institutions of universities, v) secondary schools and vi) NGO/INGOs (CTEVT, 2009). All together, 86 types short terms (1-24 weeks) of vocational trainings are running directly by CTEVT as well as in partnership with private, public and community institutions in 41 districts across five development region. Likewise three types of long term trainings is being provided by secondary schools under supervision of CTEVT and over 160 private insitutions are in operation for polytechnique TEVT (these are affiliated with CTEVT). In 2009/10, a total 45,337 people received various types vocational trainings (see box). Nepal government also prepare a guidelines for providing more opportunities to women, dalit and other excluded groups and communities. The awareness raising programs also launched for increasing access disadvantaged and deprived groups and communities. However, the women, dalit and other excluded groups are not really enjoyed through such opportunities. In addition, lack of post employment fund, poor quality training, lower quantity of trainings, discrepancy in demand and supply of training, lack of networking and coordination, poor mindset of trainers and trainees, donor driven culture, lack of job security are observed challenges in the field of technical education and vocational training. It is more fueling due to political unrest and lack of adequate and appropriate training providers/institutions and diverse business community.
In such given scenario, vocational training would be more productive and result oriented if the policy makers, training providers, funders are pay more attention in following issues; consultation with stakeholders, ii) thorough specific (local, national and international) market assessment, iii) flexibility in implementation, iv) post training fund (enabling environment for entrepreneurship), v) monitoring before, during and post training and ensure dis-aggregated data in terms of gender, education, class, region, vi) awareness raising as contextual manner, vii) continue researches, viii) incorporation human rights issues in trainings , ix) separation from technical education, x) enable environment for PPP (Private Public partnership) and enable environment for job security for employer and employee

Chapter One              Introduction:
1.    Country's Overview:
Nepal is one of the richest country in natural resources, culture in the world. It lies between two big and economically leading countries; India and China. Despite the diverse nature of social, cultural, environmental and political context, Nepal is still falls under least developed countries due to many reasons specially huge poverty gap where as poverty incidence demonstrated 26.4%, conflict and political instability (Commission, 2009). The economy of the country is gradually more deteriorating due to other fueling factors such as high school drop out rate, lack of employment opportunities, rapid growth in technology especially in communication, globalization, liberalization etc. Despite many changes in development activities since restoration of democracy 1990, the national economy has not significantly improved. It has been proved by the average per capita income -NRs 15, 000 (2003/04) and Human Development Index (HDI) 0.509 (2006- which is lower than global human development report, 0.534)[2]. In South Asia, Nepal's HDI position was higher than Bhutan in 1992 but now the Bhutan has been gaining income by 5 fold where as Nepal has only 2.3 fold[3]. Likewise, the Human Poverty Index (HPI) of Nepal is estimated 35.4 2007/08. The HDI, HPI are varies by regions, sub-regions, ethnicity, though the overall scenario of Nepal is serious  by many factors; social, cultural, political, environmental and technological.
In given scenario, the country's economy is crucial and depends on productive age population; 38.8% of total population who are at age 16-40 years[4]. Among them, only XXX has employed in formal and non-formal sectors and XXX educated.
The labor market is crucial while talking about employment. In Nepal, most work is in the agriculture sector, where wages mostly unpaid or kind or low wages. Empirical as well as researches showed that Nepal has surplus labor with poor quality. In addition, the labor market also significantly shifting from agriculture to industry and services specially after introduction of multiparty system 1990.
Thus, the TEVT is very important to contentiously upgrade because it is indispensible instrument for improving labor mobility, adaptability and productivity and also helps to enhancing firms, competitiveness and redressing labor market imbalances (Caillods 1994, 241). Its also enables machinery and plan to be used more efficiently, raising the rate of return on investments( Ashton etal 1999, 8).  Currently, public, private and NGOs/INGOs have been launching various types of short terms and long terms trainings for different target groups though there is still challenge to balance the supply of skills with demands in labor market. if the demand is unsatisfied, skills bottleneck impede growth and development. If the supply is not absorbed, unemployment and waste of scarce resources ensue (Johanson and Adams 2004, 17-18).
2.    Summary on Technical Education and Vocational Training (TEVT) in Nepal:
There is no single definition on TEVT, it evolves through time and development along with human society. However, it is an educational activity in order to orient necessary knowledge and skills for appropriate professional and labor performance. It has both theoretical and practical components as demand by market. In case of Nepal, the short terms trainings are taken as a vocational trainings. Since 1989, under the Ministry of  Education, CTEVT has been playing a pioneer role in developing skills human capital where as the eight five year (2002/07) plan introduced vocational training shortly. The tenth-five year plan spelled very elaborative. It has taken as complimentary input for poverty alleviation through enable disadvantaged individuals, groups and communities. During interim plan (2007-2010), government developed policy on skills development (TEVT). It's main purpose is to expand the training programs and ensure excess and inclusion of women, dalit, ethnic groups, Madeshi and deprived communities across Nepal[5]. Principally, the government policy has focused on five components; expansion, inclusion and access, integration, relevancy and funding. Under the CTEVT, the government has National Skills Testing Board (NSTB) in order to qualify the TEVT. At this moment, on behalf of Ministry of Education, CTEVT continue TEVT activities as a pioneer organization through partnership with other private and public, governmental and non-governmental institutions. The CTEVT has developed curriculum for vocational trainings, accreditation of poly technique (agriculture, medicine and nursing) institutes and certified for  few trainings. In addition, it also conducts direct trainings, will discuss succeeding paragraphs. As national plans and policies, it also incorporated a very good guidelines for gender and social inclusion. The Skills Employment Project (SEP) has launched from 2009-2011 in order to provide employment to 80, 000 youths through various trainings programs. Thus, it has also organize awareness raising activities around TEVT through print, audio and video methods as well.
Beside CTEVT, Ministry of Labor and Transportation also provides vocational trainings throughout the five developmental regions and FNCCI has been starting TEVT since 2003 in nine districts as a Trading Centers.
Finally, private institutions also has contribution organizing and facilitating trainings centers. Primarily, they provided the trainings on the basis of demand of the NGOs/INGOs.
Considering country's pattern on demand and supply on TEVT, this study has has put forward following objectives.
Objectives:
The general objectives of this study is to rapid analysis of the TEVT in Nepal including general trends, opportunities and challenges.
The specific objectives are;
1. To identify the current scenario of the technical education and vocational trainings in Nepal
2. To explore the strengths and weaknesses of technical education and vocational trainings in Nepal
3. To come up with recommendation for future programming


Methodology:
The secondary data and information gathered through review of publications and electronic means. The primary data and information gathered through participatory discussions, in-depth interview with right holders, experts of CTEVT, SEP, FNCCI and representatives of civil societies of Kathmandu, Kaski and Jumla.

Limitation of the Study:
This study is a rapid scan and primarily based on secondary data, expert opinions and limited field experiences


Chapter Two               Discussions
1.    National Policy on Technical Education and Vocational Training:
Since 1971, vocational training has been getting space in policy along with technical education. The tenth five year plan has concretely mentioned five abovementioned areas for vocational training. But it has not significant changes against its objectives or national economy. Because of limited access over the modern communication devices as well as ignorance about scope of the vocational training, neither disadvantaged group knew about the TEVT nor have willingness to get education and training and continuity of these acquired skills and knowledge for life long as an income generating opportunity. In other hand, the prescribed trainings are also not relevant as need, interest and aspirations of the targeted communities. In the market neither critical mass for vocational training nor suppliers ready to invest more systematic manner due to high tendency to foreign employment as well as no job security for employee. Because the social, cultural, technological context is differs place to place. Meanwhile, the training doesn't have plan or support for post training activities in order to continue their skills throughout their life such as  credit, marketing support and business support. In such situation the stereotyped trainings or supply driven trainings seemed as a formality for spending allowable budget from the supply side where as getting scholarships and certificates from demand side.. Somewhere, one participants took two-three trainings but no use at all. Likewise, the funding also limited. As a result, the number of the training, quality of training (squeeze the duration, curriculum and higher the eligibility criteria)[6]. Finally, these trainings are unable to reach poor and excluded groups as it intends.
2.    Supply of Technical Education and Vocational Trainings
Regarding TEVT, there is a close relationship among Ministry of Labor and Transportation, Ministry of Industry and Ministry of Education. Till today, on behalf of ministry of education, CTEVT has been leading the TEVT by preparing curriculum, accredited the institutions for trainings and providing certificates by skills testing. It is also providing 65 types short term trainings directly through 53 training institutions in 12 districts across five development regions and granted affiliation to over 160 private institutions to run TEVT programs where the enrollment capacity is about 12000 (CTEVT website)[7]. CTEVT conduct a monitoring visit once a year only. It has been partnership with many public and private organizations. Under supervision and guidance of CTEVT, SEP has been providing series of trainings in 2009 and 2010. It is funded by Asian Development Bank (ADB) since 2005 and will work up to 2011 in order to poverty alleviation through generating self-employment for 80, 000, ten grade (SLC failed youth age between 16-48 years)[8]. It also provides training to institutions of training providers. Till today, SEP has already provided various trainings to 13, 926 through partnering with private, public and communities in 2009 through SEP[9].
Likewise, on behalf of Ministry of Labor and Transportation 20,800 participants benefitted through 12 training centers across development regions. As plan of SEP, the various training are ongoing through several private, public and community training providers where 8, 437 people are getting benefit.

Likewise, SEP has agreed with eight approved training institutions for 42, 000 trainees for training opportunities for 2010.
Likewise, FNCCI has been organizing vocational trainings in nine districts called trading schools. FNCCI is also using curriculum which is prepared by CTEVT. The FNCCI has no distinct guidelines on gender and inclusion. It is basically need based training approach and has to have demand of local FNNCI chapter. FNCCI believes that free things difficult to sustain. On the basis of this philosophy, FNCCI, has been providing training to 4100 participants since 2003.
3.Type of Technical Education and Vocational Trainings
Because of the availability of training institutes, socio-cultural and technological factors, the nature of training is vary place to place. Based on practice, broadly, training can be categorized in to three types as below;
                 I.            Short term trainings: All together 86 types trainings fall under this category which provided by both public and private institutions. The sub-types of Trainings mentioned in table no 4.
               II.            Long term trainings: Only four types of trainings fall under this category where the duration of trainings is 15 months to 29 months. It is more or less polytechnique trainings by nature. These trainings are providing by secondary higher school under supervision of CTEVT.
            III.            Long Term Trainings: 18 months to 36 months trainings are fall under this category. It is also polytehnicque in nature where CTEVT provides accreditation, managing examination and overall quality of the TEVT. Primarily, it is medicine, nursing.
Types of Available Technical Education and Vocational Trainings
Short Trainings 1 week to 4 weeks (Public and private Institutions)
SN
Trainings
S.N.
Trainings
S.N
Trainings
1
Shattering
2
Steel Fixture
3
Off Season Vegetable Producer
4
Carpenter
5
Flower Decorator
6
Masion
7
Motor Cycle Mechnics
8
Plumber
9
Wood Handi maker
10
Waiter/ress
11
Beautician
12
Thanka Painter
13
Hand Embroidary
14
Poultry Firm worker
15
Sweets/dairy product producer
16
Care Giver
17
Garden Designer
18
Indian Cusion Cook
19
Radio/TV repair
20
Tigming welding
21
Continental Cusion Cook
22
Light vehicle Driver
23
Community Livestock Asstant
24
Sarfolding
25
House Painter
26
Bee-keeping
27
Chinese Cook
28
Tailoring
29
Community Agricultural
30
Electrician
31
Furniture maker
32
Leth Satter Operator
33
General auto Mechanics
34
Allo processor
35
Cardao processor
36
Welding
37
Fruit Product processor
38
Nepali paper producer
39
Industrial Electrician
40
Shoe maker
41
Security Guard
42
Mobile Repaire
43
Tyle/marbal Fitter
44
Tea/Cofee processor
45
Computer Hardware technician
46
Post Harvestated technican
47
House Keeping
48
Electrical Appliance Repaire
49
Marbal/Chips Policer
50
Bamboo Artisan
51
Herbal Processor
52
Refrigerator, Air Conditionor maintenance
53
Riksa Repair
54
Cement product
55
Bakery
56
Bar winder
57
Fashain Designer
58
Advance tailoring
59
Leather goods
60
Gas archWelder
61
Candle making
62
Stone carving
63
Noodles Making
64
Nursery
65
Hotel managemt
66
Literacy
67
Jewellery maker
68
Sauce making
69
Dhaka Weaving
70
Photography
71
Jam/Juice Making
72
Swine Rearing Training
73
Ladies Purse Training
74
Stone Block
75
Trout Fish Farming (special)
76
Tikuli Poti
77
AutoCAD
78
ChalkStone Industry
79
Gavin Wire (Box Making)
80
Sanitary Fitting
81
Constructor Supervisor
82
Handloom Training
83
Parwal farming
84
Offset Operator
85
Horticulture
86
Saw Mill Operator
Long Term Trainings 15-29 months (Annex program under CTEVT)
1
Sub -Overseer -Civil
2
Sub Overseer -electrical
3
Junior Technican-Computer
4
JTA-Agriculture




Long term  18 months to 36 months years )
1
Staff Nurse
2
Health Assitant



However, the nature of trainings still seemed stereotyped and not relevant in many context due to lack of job assessment as driven by market. These trainings neither gender sensitive nor appropriate and adequate as their context.
4.    Availability of Technical Educational and Vocational Trainings (Geographical)
In general, trainings institutes are locally available because these are available in five development regions and training are delivering through 41districts.. However, these are out of access for women, poor and excluded groups due to lack of information, geographically far, lack of required documents e.g. citizenship, lack of trust towards training, problem in residential program for women, no market after completion training and to some extent not accepted by community towards their quality, status and entrepreneurship.
To some extent, information, education and communication program also launched in order to raising awareness on vocational trainings and its scope. However, these are not much effective nor address the level of the targeted group. Thus, the targeted people are still lagged behind about info regarding availability of vocational trainings and scope of vocational training.   
In terms of long terms of trainings, it is also poor access to for poor and excluded groups due to lack of information, many steps for formalities (process) and expensive  payment (Nursing, medicine- around US $10,000) and no job guarantee for powerless people. 

5.       Duration
There is huge variation in duration and difficult categorically due to lack of appropriate data. As mentioned under types of trainings, this report broadly categorize the trainings in to three. They are
                 I.            Short term trainings: 1-4 weeks
               II.            Long term trainings: 15-29 months
            III.            Long Term Trainings: 18-36 months

6.       Cost (Lodging, Fooding, Tuition fee)
Indeed, trainings provided by government, Ministry of Labor and Transportation, SEP funded and CTEVT directly, all trainings are free. For deprived and disadvantaged group, there is especial provision like monthly scholarship ranges from 1000-3000/ month (defined as guideline for 25 % participants). Even such freely provided trainings, participants should have to arrange at least USD 70 for month for their transportation and other daily expenses. During this study period, AWON try to arrange a training for Jumli participants as  waiter/waitress, participants are not interested due to fear of additional expenses. In case of private institutions, fee is mandatory and the arte also vary.
Despite the high rate in private institutions, people are taking trainings from their due to marketing, physically accessible and lack of information about real scenario. In case of FNCCI, participants must have to pay because they believe that fee is an essential factor for taking ownership and sustainability.
7.    Eligibility
By principle, the vocational training has provisioned for ten grade youths (SLC failed) and aged 16-48 years old. In most cases, the given educational requirement also not much significant (allow to those who can do simple drawings and calculations) and anyone can join. It is also determined by nature of training.
Long term trainings (category II) can be joined by ten class pass or SLC failed. The SLC passed with 45% marks can join in 18-36 months long course but must have passed entrance examination as well as well as select in merit basis.
8.    Gender and Social Inclusion
Indeed, the government has developed guidelines for gender and social inclusion. However, the excluded group and women are unable to get trainings as targeted due to many reasons; ignorance about scope of trainings, no access to information, stereotyped thinking towards occupation (patriarchal society and culture). In case of FNCCI, there is no specific guidelines but it provides some benefits to the local people, discourage child labor, occupational health safety, labor rights as a part of corporate social responsibility. To some extent, it is lack of monitoring and documentation on sex, caste, education disaggregated data.
9.    Utilization/Continuity of Skills from Vocational Trainings
As SEP report, minimum 74 % participants are continuing their skills at their individual, in local and national  and international level. The level of income also raising an average NRs 5000/month[10]. FNCCI has 83% employment rate. However, there is still lack of systematic assessment of use of trainees and its impact of their individual and family livelihood, other factors of improved livelihood; social, environmental, technological, political, cultural. Likewise, there is no fund for continuing their skills because poor and excluded group do not have financial capacity to initiate the entrepreneurship.
It is empirically observed that category II and category III are more absorbed in aboard but they have to pass through other exams such as English test and special course because our education are not recognized yet. Thus, staff nurses have to do at least six month trainings once they arrive at destination country. They will eligible once they get lisence. Nurses  and Health Assistant who are working in Nepal, they neither do get respectable job nor salary across Nepal. In this matter, none of the stakeholders such as nursing or paramedics council, CTEVT are serious yet.
10.               Overall Strengths on Technical Education and Vocational Training
1.    Most of the trainings are belong with indigenous skills and knowledge
2.    The target group is poor and excluded groups with or without education (for short terms trainings) special provision for women, dalit and other excluded groups (except FNCCI)
3.    Prescribed short term trainings are provided as free of cost (except FNCCI)
4.    Organize some activities for awareness raising about trainings and its scope
5.    Trainings are locally available, across development regions and 41 districts
6.    There are choices for short terms trainings -a total 86 types trainings available
7.    Skill Testing Board is operational -a total 7, 020 participants are passed through this process in 2009
11.               Overall Challenges on Technical Education and Vocational Training
1.    No data and information available in organize manner e.g. disaggregated data of participants, location etc
2.    Technical education and vocational trainings deal in a single basket so the essence also diffuse
3.    There is high discrepancy between demand and supply  funding driven trainings e.g. Jumla is under construction and urbanization so need to organize auto mechanic instead of sewing and knitting (Relevance)
4.    The target group do not have access over the information of TEVT including where, how, when, how long, why etc
5.    The completed and prescribed trainings are limited with basic knowledge rather advanced skills and knowledge including entrepreneurship skills
6.    The ongoing trainings are not reached up to the women, dalit and excluded group as equitable distribution
7.    The given training is also not adequate in numbers as well
8.    The quality and professionalism is so poor among trainees and trainers so absorption of them is also issue and participants discourages to join trainings
9.    Usually, no use after completion of training. The selection of participants is poor (counting heads, no results, no commitments)
10.      There is merely no follow up and monitoring after training
11.      The trainings are conducted without thorough job assessment and  studies as driven by local, national and international market
12.      There is no mechanism for continuity of the skills and knowledge (post training support) acquired from training such as fund or loan and insurance
13.      In the market, there is limited institutions which are fully meet the trainer's criteria  such as number and quality of trainers, physical facilities etc
14.      Lack of coordination and consultation with stakeholder  so lack of ownership and sustainability of the training outcome


Chapter Three            Conclusion

This study explored some gap in TEVT practice in Nepal. The foremost issue is insignificant relevancy of the trainings types, quality and availability as expected to increase capital. Thus, there is discrepancy in between demand and supply by type, availability, post training support etc. TEVT programs also seemed rigid. Regardless the types, cost , duration, eligibility of the TEVT programs, the overall quality is so poor. The existing trainings institutes are not enough as well with poor human, physical capital for quality, effectiveness off the program. The sole CTEVT has already overburden and monitoring and evaluation part is highly minimized. Thus, the absorption and market of TEVT also largely decreased. In conclusion, the ongoing globalization, increasing migrant labor also affected due to poor quality of the TEVT. Therefore, it is crucial to think broadly in the field of TEVT in order to increase national income and development at large.
Recommendations
1.    A thorough study has to be done for deeper and focused understanding on TEVT
2.    Technical Education and vocational trainings has to separate and manage accordingly
3.    During the design of the any TEVT program, funding institutions, target groups and proprietors' should discuss for uniform and result oriented program
4.    The thorough job assessment should be carried out periodically because the external environment or market is so complex and keep on changing e.g. labor market shifting from agriculture to industry then services
5.    The vocational TEVT  has to be relevant with national and international demand in terms of number, types and quality
6.    The promotion strategy should adopt in order to create critical/mass demand for trainings by adopting innovative approach which helps to access up to marginalized groups and areas
7.    The development approach and issues such as international and national policies, legal acts, human rights declarations associated with labor and migration have to incorporate in to TEVT curriculum (right based approach)
8.    The TEVT should provide equal opportunity for women through adopting various innovative approaches e.g. incentives or promotion programs for raising awareness
9.    The mechanism should adopt in order to continuity of acquired skills and knowledge such as seed money or loan,  insurance, occupational health safety and so on (post training support)
10.      The monitoring system has to be regular and systematic for ensuring quality and disaggregated information in terms of gender, caste, class and region
11.      In order to address specific needs of the participants, there should be provision for flexibility in implementation
12.      The coordination with network (industrial, professional, local, national, international), private agencies should be institutionalized in order to promote PPP (private public partnership)



References:

1.       Human Development Report, UNDP-2009
2.       Government Policy on Vocational Training, 2064
  1. Improving Technical Education and Vocational Training: Strategies for Asia
4.        
5.       SEP, Bulletin 3, Aswin, 2067
7.        HDI Report 2009
  1. Improving Technical Education and Vocational Training: Strategies for Asia, ADB, 2004
9.    Reorienting TVET Policy towards Education for Sustainable Development, CTEVT, country presentation 2009
10.    Gunter Kohlheyer,Technical Education and Vocational Training in Nepal, capitalization on supported projects
and future scenario of SDC’s position in the emerging TEVT market, August/September 2006
  1. TEVT Skill Development Policy, 2064 (Approved with the decision of Council of Ministers/Cabinet on 3 Ashwin 2064 BS)



Annex
Participants who are involved in the study
S.N.
Name
Designation/Organization (Address)
1
Roni Shrestha
NRCS, Jumla
2
Manju Shrestha
Chandanath, Jumla
3
Maya Thapa
Chandanath, Jumla
4
Lokdarsan Shrestha
President, NRCS, Jumla
5
Chandanath Bhandari
Lamra, Jumla
6
Sarpananda Hamal
FNCC, Jumla
7
Harikala Rawat
Lamra, Jumla
8
Devesh Chandra Devkota
Assistant Director, Accredation, CTEVT
9
Nirmal Neupane
Project Manager,Skill Employment Project, Kathmandu
10

Skill Employment Project
11
Hemat Dabadi
Director General, FNCCI
12
Ajit Gupta
Vocational Training Officer, FNCCI
13
Laxman Chaulagain
District Cordinator, Action Works Nepal
14
Binita Guragain
Research Cordinator, Action Works Nepal (AWON)





[1] so called untouchable and lower caste, constitution has already abolished such practice
[2] Human Development Report, UNDP-2009
[3] Human Development Report, UNDP-2009
[4] AYON, http://www.ayon.org/newsDetails.php?id=55
[5] Government Policy on Vocaional Training, 2064
[6] D. Devkota, Assistant Director, Accredition, CTEVT
[7] http://www.ctevt.org.np/ctevt_institutes.asp
[8] http://www.sepctevt.org.np/
[9]SEP, Bulletin 3, Aswin, 2067
[10] SEP, Bulletin, Asoj 3, 2067